Children love places where their imagination can run wild; therefore organize your kids bedroom with beautiful bunk beds design in a variety of wooden and metal finishes to economize already scarced space and always keep the room tidy.

Bunk bed designs

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A kitchen is an enclosed space in a building,home, apartment, Restaurant,hotel used for cooking and food preparation. In every home kitchen is the “Engine room” of activities because man must eat to have energy which is ability to do work.

Therefore plan, design,organize, arrange and re-arrange your kitchen with fresh ideas.

Kitchen design ideas


Most popular kitchen arrangements are; (1) U- shape arrangement and (2) L- shape arrangement. Other Shapes are; Parallel- shape, Island- Shape and Straight- Shape arrangements. These arrangements is flow of movement and activities in the kitchen.

U-SHAPE kitchen arrangement

L- SHAPE kitchen arrangement
Other Shapes arrangement.

Kitchen cabinets and space dimensions

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Gypsum board commonly known as drywall is the premier building material for wall, ceiling and partition system in residential, institutional and commercial structures. It provides a monolithic surface when joints and fastener heads are covered with a joint treatment system.

Gypsum board can be classified into two;

(i) Regular gypsum board; it refers to a gypsum board with natural occuring fire resistance from the gypsum in the core.

(ii) Type X gypsum board; its a gypsum board with special core additives to increase the natural fire resistance of Regular gypsum board.

Gypsum ceiling is a product of Gypsum board or dry wall, it has lots of advantage over many other ceilings;

  • gypsum ceiling provides sound control ( Accostics)
  • gypsum ceiling is versatile ( i.e. it can be used in many places and form)
  • gypsum ceiling has quality
  • gysum ceiling is convenience and
  • gypsum ceiling is fire resistant.


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Dont sacrifice your taste and style in the alter of limited space for sitting or living room. You can still plan ,organize, arrange and re-arrange that small sitting/living room whether you rent it or you own it to give you maximum comfort and aesthetics.

The functions of sitting or living room cannot be over emphasized, its that preciouse space in the home ,house or apartment that you can relax, attend to visitors and lot more activities. The truth remains that many visitors end up in the sitting or living room without visiting any other enclosed space in your home. therefore first impression matters; come up with fresh ideas to give it a thorough finishes and tastful look.


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Tv stands are furniture items used to hold the television above the floor level at comfortable viewing height for a seated viewer. It is used in residential sitting or living room and bedrooms, most TV stand provides additional storage options such as shelves and drawers for minimizing cluster in the sitting room or bedroom.

Many TV stand also include the option for having closed back to any open shelves that can hide the assortment of wires needed by the television and other devices. TV stands are available in range of lengths and unique styles for each design of household aesthetics.

31 Tv design ideas:

TV stand design ideas

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A bedroom is an enclosed space in the home,house,duplex,mansion,castle,palace,hotel, apartment, condominium and dormitory where people sleep, retire or relax after day-to-day activities.

Bedroom should be given maximum attention during planning,designing, furnishing,painting and finishes in order to give man utmost comfort. When a bedroom is well planned, organized, furnished and tastefully finished it boost the occupants physiological reasoning, health and inspiration.

Top 41 Bedroom ideas to help you plan for your bedroom.

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In the same way as the earth has a climate the inside of buildings also have a climate, with measurable values for air pressure, humidity of radiated heat. Efficient control of these factors leads to optimum room comfort and contributes to man’s overall health and ability to perform whatever task his is engaged in. Thermal comfort is experienced when the thermal processes within the body are in balance ( i.e when the body manages it’s thermal regulation with the minimum of effort and the heat dissipated from the body corresponding with the equilibrium loss of heat to the surrounding area)


An air temperature of 20- 24°c is comfortable both in summer and in winter. The surrounding surface areas should not differ by more than 2-3°c from the air temperature. A change in the air temperature can be compensated for by changing the surface temperature ( e.g with decreasing air temperature, increase the surface temperature) If there is too much difference between the air and surface temperature, excessive movement of air takes place. The main critical surfaces are those of the windows.

For comfort, heat condition to the floor via the feet be avoided ( ie the floor temperature should be 17°c or more). The surface temperature of the ceiling depends upon the height of the room. The temperature sensed by humans is somewhere near the average between room air temperature and that of surrounding surfaces.

It is important to control air movement and humidity as far as possible. The movement can be sensed as draughts and this has the effect of local cooling of the body. A relative air humidity of 40-50% is comforted with a lower humidity (e.g 30% dust particles are liable to fly around.

To maintain the quality of the air,controlled ventilation is ideal. The Co² content of the air must be replaced by oxygen. A Co² content of 0.10% by volume should not exceeded, and therefore in living rooms and bedrooms provide for two to three air changes per hour. The fresh air requirement of humans comes to about 32.0m3/h so the air change in living rooms should be 0.4 – 0.8 times the room volume per person/hour.

Temperature Regulation and heat Loss From the Body.

The Humans body can raise or lower the rate at which it losses heat using several mechanism: increasing blood circulation in the skin, increasing the blood circulation speed, vascular dilation and secreting sweat. When cold, the body uses muscular shivering to generate additional heat.Heat is lost from the body in three main ways: Conduction, Convection and Radiation.

  • Conduction is the process of heat transfer from one surface to another surface when they are in contact (e.g feet in contact with the floor) . the rate of heat transfer depends on the surface area in contact,the temperature differential and the thermal conductivies of the materials involved.copper for example, has a high thermal conductivies while that of air is low, making it a porous insulating materials.
  • Convection is the process of body heat being lost as the skin warms the surrounding air. This process is governed by the velocity of the circulating air in the room and the temperature differential between the clothed and unclothed areas of the body. Air circulation is also driven by convection: air warms itself by contact with hot objects ( e.g radiators), rise’s, cools off on the ceiling and sink again. As it circulates the air carries dust and floating particles with it. The quicker the heating medium flows (e.g water in a radiator) the quicker is the development of circulation.
  • Radiation: All objects including the human body emit heat radiation in accordance to temperature difference between the body surface and that of the ambient area. It is proportional to the power of 4 of the body’s absolute temperature and therefore 16 times as high if the temperature doubles. The wavelength of the radiation also changes with temperature: the higher the surface temperature, the shorter the wavelength. Above 500°c, heat becomes vissible as light. The radiation below this limit is called infra-red/ heat radiation. It radiates in all directions, penetrates the air without heating it, and is absorbed by ( or reflected off) other solid bodies. In absorption the radiation, these solid bodies ( including human bodies) are warmed. This radiant heat absorption by the body ( e.g from tiles, stoves) is the most pleasant sensation for humans for physiological reasons and also the most healthy.Other heat exchange mechanisms used by the human body are evaporation of moisture from the sweat grands and breathing. The body surface and vapour pressure differential between the skin and surrounding areas are key factor here.

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Colour have a great power on humans . 

colours can create feelings of well-being, unease activity  or passivity. Example; Colouring in factories, offices or schools can enhance or reduce performance; in hospital it can have a positive influence on patient’s health. This influence works indirectly through making rooms appear wider or narrower,thereby given an impression of space which promotes a feeling of restrictions or freedom. Example (1)  Dark colours make a room heavy: ceiling seems to be lower if heavily coloured.

(2) Long rooms seems short if end cross walls stand out heavily.

It also works directly through the physical reactions or impulses evoked by the individual colours. Example; (1) Bright , dark colours and their effect on humans

Light and heavy colours ( not the same as Bright and dark colours; create a heavy feeling.

The strongest impulse effect comes from orange; then follow by yellow,red, green and purple. The weakest impulse effect comes from blue,greeny blue and violet ( i.e cold and passive colours)

Strongest impulse colours are suitable only for small areas in a room. Conversely, low impulse colours can be used for large areas. Warm colours have an active and stimulating effect, which in certain circumstances can be exciting. Cold colours have a passive effect- calming and spiritual. Green colours causes nervous tension.

The effects produced by colours also depends on brightness and location. Warm and bright colours viewed overhead have a spiritually stimulating effect; viewed from the side, a warming, drawing closer effect; seen below, a lightening, elevating effect.

Warm and dark colours viewed above are enclosing or dignified; seen from the side, embracing; and seen from below suggest safe to grip and to tread on.

Cold and bright colours brighten things up and are relaxing; from the side they seems to lead away; and seen below, look smooth and stimulating for walking on.

Cold and dark colours are threatening when above; cold and sad from the side; and burdensome, dragging down, when below.

White is the colour of total purity, cleanliness and order. White plays a leading role in the colour design of rooms, breaking up and neutralising other groups of colours, and thereby create an invigorating brightness. As the colour of order, white is used as the characteristic surface for warehouses and storage places, for road lines, ceiling and traffic marking.

Combination of colours ideas;

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Top 6 parties in building construction and their Duties in Nigeria

There are many parties involved in the complex operation of building design and construction in Nigeria. These parties can be classified into three groups: the client who may be individual, a local authority, a government parastatal, a community, the government ministry or any other corporate body; the consultant who may be the Architect, structural/ civil engineer, quantity surveyor, and the service engineers ( mechanical and electrical engineers). Their role is to interpret the client’s requirements into specific design as supervising the work to ensure they are carried out to a successful conclusion. The third person is the contractor who turns the Architect’s drawings into reality. The contractor employs the services of sub- contractor and specialist in this regard.

However, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of their Duties/ responsibilities, legal rights and Liabilities.

The 6 parties are:

(a) The Client

Duties and Responsibilities of the Client

pre-contract or commencement stage: At the pre-contract or commencement stage, the duties include

(1) Briefs the Architect on his requirements with reference to space available, location of the new building, the amount he is ready to spend and the duration of the project.

(2) Ensure that the Architect is in possession of all the known facts such as survey plan, encumbrances etc.

(3) On receiving the Architect’s views on type, size, shape and cost of the building consider whether the project should proceed.

(4) If the project proceeds, signs contract after agreeing to tender figure.

(5) Sign contract after tendering.

(6) Pay the consultant for their professional services.

Contract and post contract stages: At this stage the duties include:

(1) Honour the necessary payments of former certificates, extra contractual claims when confirmed and professional fees.

(2) Make settlement on final certificate.


(1) Employ other person’s to carryout instructions if contractor does not.

(2) Appoint Clerk of work

(3) Assign responsibilities in respect of insurance

(4) To deduct damages for non-completion

(5) Determine the contract where contractor fails to perform his duties

(6) Engage artist and tradesmen

(7) Antiquities found in the site

(8) Determine his contract with the professional advisers for tort ( negligence, nuisance or trespass)


The client may be liable if he:

(1) Fails to carry out approval responsibilities within the period stated in the contract

(2) Fails to honour the payment of professional fees.


Duties and responsibilities of the Architect

Pre-contract or commencement stage: The duties and responsibilities include:

(1) He advises the client and make careful analysis of the client’s requirements.

(2) Consults with local authorities for planning approval and other statutory authorities that will provides services to the site.

(3) Brings together other consultants and coordinates the activities of the consultants

(4) After the client has assessed cost limits and time scale and give approval to the sketch plans, the Architect can proceed to the contract drawings and prepares specifications.

(5) After the preparation of bill of quantities, he tenders the project for the selection of building contractor.

CONTRACT STAGE:  At this stage the duties include:

(1)  Suppervises the project to make sure the works are executed in accordance with the contract documents

(2) Issues interim certificates of payment to the contractor for the client to settle.

Post contract stage: The Duties include

(1)  Upon completion of the project, issues certificate of completion

(2) Issues final certificate of payment after the defect liability period which is normally between three to six months.

Legal rights of the Architect

(1) Issues instructions when justified

(2) Access to the works at all reasonable times

(3) Open up, test and remove defective work and dismissal of persons

Liabilities of the Architect 

The liabilities of the Architect include:

(1) Misinterpretation: Making an untrue statement of fact by the Architect either before or at the time of entering into the contract with the intention that the other party will act upon it. It May be innocent when made without intention to deceive.it become fraudulent when made knowingly. The Architect become liable when he misrepresents facts and brings loss to the client or any other party involved.

(2) Negligence: This involves failure to exercise reasonable care or skill. It may be carelessness or outright incompetence. He becomes liable when his carelessness or incompetence bring loss to the client or any other party in the building process.

(c) The Quantity Surveyor

Duties and Responsibilities of Quantity Surveyor

pre-contract or commencement stage: The duties include:

(1) Prepares approximate estimate and cost plan from sketch drawings.

(2) Advises on the availability of materials

(3) Advises on final cost of the project

(4) Prepares bill of quantities stating the quantity and quality of materials needed for the projects

(5) Checks the accuracy of priced bill during tender to ensure that the builder has made any serious errors that may cause complications at a later date

(6) Informs the Architect of the estimates correctness.

Contract stage: The duties include:

(1) Values the amount of work done and materials delivered to site for interim or final certificates to be prepared for payment

(2) Prepare cost analysis of the job in comparison with other building and informs the Architect on the running cost of the project.

Post- contract or completion stage: The duties include:

(1) Prepares final account with the aid of builders receipts and other documents

(2) Assist the Architect to prepare extra- contractual costs.

Legal rights of Quantity surveyor

Quantity surveyor has legal rights to:

(1) Access to the works at all reasonable times to carryout valuation.

Liabilities of the Quantity surveyor

Liabilities include:

(1) Misrepresentation: Trying to conceal facts either before or at the time of entering into the contract with the intention that the other party will act upon it.The Quantity surveyor becomes liable if the misinterpretation brings about loss to the Client or Contractor or any other person’s involved in the project.

(2) Negligence: When the Quantity surveyor fails to exercise reasonable care or skill due to carelessness or incompetence. The Quantity surveyor becomes liable if the Client, Contractor or any other party suffers loss due to considerable errors in valuation etc.

(d) The Structural Engineer

Pre- contract or commencement stage: The duties include:

(1) Design all the steel bars for reinforcement, their positions and method of placement in the building to reinforce the contract. This involves detailing, schedule

(2) Carries out soil test, the strength of materials and their suitability and construction methods.

(3) Specifies the ratio of concrete or mortar mix required for the building to be of sound strength.

Contract Stage: The Duties include:

(1) Provides effective monitoring to ensure compliance with specifications.

(2) During the contract assist to modify or re-design the work as may be necessary

Legal Rights of the Structural Engineer

Structural Engineer has legal rights to:

(1) Access to the works at all reasonable times for suppervion to ensure compliance.

Liabilities of the Structural Engineer

The Liabilities include:

(1) Misinterpretation: By making untrue statement of fact before or at the time of entering into contract with the intention to deceive. Where the Client or any other party to the contract suffers loss,then the Structural Engineer is liable.

(2) Negligence: If the Structural Engineer is negligent by careless or incompetent and becomes liable if the Client or any other party suffers loss.

(e) Services Engineers

The Services Engineer are consultants in specialist areas such as plumbing, heating, Electrical and sewage services, they are Mechanical or Electrical Engineers. In performing their functions, they have responsibilities, rights and Liabilities.

Duties and Responsibilities of the Services Engineer

pre-contract or commencement stage: 

(1) Carry out preliminary and final design of the project within the scope of their specialist field

(2) Produces calculation and other relevant data that may assist the Architect design, the Quantity surveyor in his cost control or the local authority assessment of the suitability of the project regarding statutory requirements

(3) Prepares working drawings including specifications detailed enough for the project execution.

Contract Stage: The duties include:

(1) Assist in the modification or re-design the work as may become necessary

(2) Monitors the work to ensure compliance.

Legal Rights of the Services Engineers

The services Engineers have legal rights to:

(1) Access to the works at all reasonable times for the suppervission of the work.

Liabilities of the Service Engineers

The liabilities include:

(1) Misinterpretation: By concealing facts and becomes liable when the Contractor or Client suffers loss.

(2) Negligence: When the Services Engineers do not exercise a duty of care duo to carelessness or incompetence and becomes liable where the Client or Contractor suffers loss.

(f) The Contractor

The contractor executes the construction of the project in accordance with the drawings and specifications. In carrying out this function he has responsibilities, rights and Liabilities.

Duties and Responsibilities of the Contractor

pre-contract or commencement stage: The duties include:

(1) The Contractor on receiving application for tender should decide whether or not he will be capable of executing the work according to the Architect’s specifications.

(2) Carryout site investigation to ascertain possible areas of problems

(3) He tenders for the contract after deciding on final tender figure.

(4) Sign the contract after tender has been accepted.

Contract Stage: The Duties include:

(1) He should control his labour and materials including sub-contractors and also ensuring that he adhere to regulations affecting the construction of the building.

(2) He ensures that his site agent must at all times work with the Clerk of works to ensure harmony between the parties and the smooth running of the project.

Post-contract or completion stage: The Duties include;

(1) Upon the completion of works, he should provide all necessary information to Quantity surveyor to complete final account and extra contractual payment as necessary.

(2) He should carry out his obligations to complete the defects liability clause, and maintenance work as agreed at the inception of the project.

Legal Rights of the Contractor

The rights of the Contractor include rights to:

(1) Variation and claims

(2) Ownership and protective responsibility of unfixed materials

(3) Claims for disturbance of regular progress of works

(4) Determination of the works

(5) Arbitration Where necessary

(6) Assign and sub- let part of his work

Liabilities of the Contractor

The Contractor becomes liable if:

(1) In respect of third party injuries and insurance

(2) To cost suffered during determination

(3) To cost suffered during arbitration procedures

(4) If the Contractor Carries out any non-contractual responsibilities of the Clerk of work

(5) If the contractor does not carry out and complete the works in accordance with drawings and specifications without any contractual explanations.

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4 Easy way to reduce Energy bill.

  1.  There are many ways you can Reduce  cost of electricity bill  in your home.

4 ways to reduce energy bill

(1) Appliance and Electronics; 


Purchase energy-efficient products and operate them efficiently.choosing appliances that are Energy-efficient can save you lot of money, like fridges,freezers, television, washing machine, dishwasher,water heater, air-condition, Etc. Always check “Energy-efficiency” rating of any appliances before buying them to save you money during the lifetime of the appliance.

(2) Lighting;

Switching to energy-efficient lighting is one of the fastest way to cut your energy bills by replacing your home lights with most frequently used lights fixtures or bulbs model that has energy-efficient.you have many choices to make in energy-efficient lighting, but most popular light bulbs available are halogen incandescents, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and light- emitting diodes ( LEDs). Although they can cost more than traditional incandescents bulbs when buying but during their lifetime, energy-efficient bulbs will save you money because they use less energy.

(3) Control;

Photoscells to detect light

*Use an advanced power strip to reduce “Vampire loads” ( i.e electricity that is wasted when electronics are not in use).

* Use timers and photoscells: it save electricity by turning lights off when not in use. Photoscells are sensors that allow you to detect light for example you might want a sensor that detects when a flashlight is on, or when the sun is out. Photoscells are used in automatic night lights and in street lamps that turn themselves on at night.

(4) Energy-efficient home design;

* Incorporate passive solar design concepts into your house. Passive solar design refers to the use of the sun’s Energy for the heating and cooling of living spaces by exposure to the sun,when sunlight strikes a building, the building materials can reflect, transmit, or absorb the solar radiation.

* Orientation of building: it refers to the positioning of a building in relation to seasonal variation in the sun’s path as well as prevailing wind patterns. Good Orientation can increase the energy-efficiency of your house, making it more comfortable to live in and cheaper to run.

Us journal on energy department.

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