how Domestic sewage treatment plant operates:

The domestic sewage treatment plant is an All-in-one device; a plant that has two or more compartment depending on the technology. all contained in a single enclosure. the station collects all the wastewater from the building and transports it first to the first compartment then to the settling tank which acts as a septic tank in the settling compartment , the solid waste settle and form sludge at the bottom of the tank.this compartment needs to be emptied regularly.

The waste water is sent to the reactor where it will be purified by the bacteria. A bacteria growth- support is placed in the middle of this second tank and the bacteria that grow there purify the water, to do this it is necessary to provide them with oxygen. the domestic sewage treatment plant must therefore be permanently supplied with electricity finally. the treated water arrives in the classifier where it undergoes a final settling stage. The sludge that forms in this tank is then reformed to the settling compartment.

advantages and disadvantages of domestic sewage treatment plant.

(1) The domestic treatment plant is the most compact and discrete device on the market. with only 5m2 of floor space it can be installed anywhere,even above ground in houses without land or underground.The operating system; it must be constant power supply electricity to operate. the annual cost of electric consumption is very high
(2) Its installation is very easy: it is light and easy to to transport, it can be installed in a day or two days max.If there is no constant power supply for a long while, the domestic sewage treatment plant will stop working and will take several weeks to return to normal operation once the power is restored. the wastewater would be discharged into the environment without properly treated thereby causing havoc.
(3) The system is reliable , very efficient and above all very well guaranteed, it is also a very flexible device, since manufacturers offers many different sizes, options and materials enough to easily find the right one fit for you.The domestic treatment plant needs to be running steadily to be effective. it is generally quite sensitive to load variations; if you are away for more than 4 months or if the building is occupied by non regular occupant that stay few times there. this will be a problem.
(4) Its installation cost is slightly lower than other wastewater treatment solutions on the market.Two building in a compound cannot shear one domestic treatment plant which is huge cost to installed two.

how Bio-toilet system operates:

Bio-toilet contains two parts in the structure. the toilet and Bio-digestion toilet.

The toilet drain is connected with decomposition tank using ceramic or steel to make the toilet which can be a water closet or a squatting pan. The bio-digestion tank devided into multiple sections to process the human waste in different stages. the decomposing tank will have three output values. one is to remove the fouls smell, another one is to decompose gas like Methane and another one is to remove water. once the human waste reaches the bio-digestion tank, the Anaerobic bacteria present in the bio-digestion tank start to bio-digest the human waste.These anaerobic materials can withstand a long range of temperature from 5 degree Celsius to 80 degree Celsius. these anaerobic batteries decompose the human waste into Methane and water. The Methane gas is sent through the vent, and the water can be treated for re-cycling usage. The Methane gas can be stored to use in the kitchen stove or used in the Methane generator to produce the Electricity. These bio- toilets can be installed anywhere without a big septic tank or sewage facility.

advantages and disadvantages of bio-toilet system.

(1) bio- digester toilet does not get filled; so there is no need to spend money on evacuation or dislodging
(2) bio-toilet is Odorless; you will not perceive foul smell.High cost of logistics for bacteria transportation
(3) It required small land to build, about (2m2 to 3m2).
(4) Bio- toilets does not depend on power supply to function on like domestic sewage treatment plant.
(5) Bio- toilet has high effluent quality.
(6) Bio- toilet is 99% aerobic treatment
(7) It does not required Maintenance
(8) It can last up-to the life span of the building.
(9) It is good for water logged or swampy areas.
(10) Bio-toilet system does not consume water to flush, just about half liter of water to flush.


Bio -toilet has many advantages over domestic sewage treatment plant, its more cheaper to run and maintained and environmental friendly. above all it does not require power supply to function unlike domestic sewage treatment plant, that alone is a huge plus.

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Bio-toilet system is quite different from conventional septic Tank systems,pit latrine or sewage treatment saves lot of water and helps in keeping the environment clean. bio-digester technology treats human waste at the source. a collection of anaerobic bacteria that has been adapted to work at temperature as low as 5 degree Celsius and as high as 50 degree Celsius act as binocular methane and carbon-dioxide gases. The bio-digester tank in every toilet is filled with inoculums containing four types of bacteria, the water trap system in the toilet prevent air from getting into the tank, the human waste is processed by anaerobic bacteria in seven chambers in the tank and the methane gas is allowed to escape into the air.

After the completion of this process, only methane, carbon dioxide gases and water remains. These gases are left in the environment whereas water can be re-cycled and use in the toilet again.


Bio- toilet is a decomposing mechanized toilet system which decomposes human excretory waste in the digester – tank using specific high graded bacteria anaerobic further converting it into methane gas, carbon dioxide gas and water.

what is Anaerobic bacteria ?

Anaerobic bacteria are germs that can survive and grow where there is no oxygen. for example, it can thrive in human tissue that is injured and does not have oxygen-rich blood flowing to it, infections like tetanus and gangrene are caused by anaerobic bacteria.


(1) Bio-toilet does not required much space for construction compared to conventional septic tank system.

(2) Bio-toilet has 99% aerobic treatment

(3) Bio-toilet has no dependence on energy inputs

(4) Bio-toilet can last more than 50 years without problem.

(5) Bio-toilet is odorless

(6) Bio-toilet does not get filled like conventional septic tank system,pit latrine, so there is no need to spend money on evacuation or dislodging.

(7) It does not require periodic Maintenance

(8) Bio- toilet has high effluent quality.

(9) Bio-toilet is good for water-logged and swampy areas.

(10) Bio-toilet decomposes human waste faster.

(11) Bio- toilet required about half liter of water to flush while conventional septic tank system required about 10 to 15 liters of water.

bio-toilet system design and installations.

The bio-toilet consists of an easy to install super-structure and a multi-chambered mat-riced bio tank that holds the bacterial culture and supports the treatment of human waste. The system does not need any external energy for treatment, and produces pathogen-free effluent water that is appropriate for gardening and similar purposes; the system also produces bio-gas that can be used for cooking or heating. The system meets all of the regulatory and environmental compliance requirements. The special design of the bio-tank can be customized as per the requirement and need of the end-user, and these toilet provide a zero discharge human waste solution. Proper design of the bio-toilet implies that the system fulfills criteria such as: safety, functionality, esthetic, economic affordability and environmental friendly.

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What actually comes to your mind when choosing cement for your project ?. just like medicine, if you are diagnose with malaria or high fever their is a particular drug recommendation from your physician to treat it ,likewise your project,The type of project determine the type of cement to be used. example: cement used in water-lock areas, dams project is quite different from cement use in chemical vulnerable Areas.

Cement is a substance use for binding and hardening other materials in construction and building industry. water and cement set and harden through a chemical reaction known as ”Hydration”. The process of hardening is described as ”Curing” which requires particular conditions of Temperature and humidity.

which cement is the best for drilling of gas and oil well project?

Answer; The best cement for concreting in drilling or oil well project is ”oil well cement”, because there is no chemical effect on oil well cement.

which cement is best for concrete in sulphate vulnerable areas ?

Answer; the best cement for sulphate vulnerable Areas is ‘‘Sulphate Resisting Cement”, because it has less content of C3S and C4 AF which makes it more suitable for the project.

Which cement is the best for under water structures or dams ?

Answer; the best cement for under water structures or project is ”Quick setting cement” just like the name the setting start between 5 – 30 mins.

Top 16 cement types and the best projects for it:

1. Ordinary Portland cement (opc)

Ordinary Portland cement is the most common type of cement which is manufactured and widely used worldwide.


It is used for all ordinary purposes such as making concrete, mortar, plaster etc. OPC is available in three grades namely grade 33, 43 and 53. Ordinary Portland cement is mixed with aggregates and water to make concrete,which is an essential modern building materials. it is also used to make mortar for joining masonry and plaster to give perfect finished walls. OPC has many applications such as in the manufacturing of grout, wall putty, solid concrete blocks, AAC blocks and other types of cement.

2. High alumina cement.

High alumina cement is obtained by melting bauxite during the manufacturing process of ordinary Portland cement. it has a high compressive strength and is more workable as compared to OPC. it attains high strength in less time and has initial and final setting time of 3.5 hours and 5 hours respectively.


It is used where concrete structure are subjected to high temperatures like workshop,refractory, foundries etc. it can also be used where concrete is subjected to frost action and acidic action.

3. Air Entraining cement.

Various air entraining agents such as resins, glues, sodium sulphate, etc are added along with the clinker to produce air entraining cement. For the same water-cement ratio, air entraining cement has more work-ability as compared to Ordinary Portland cement. This type of cement has more resistance to frost, but as it contains voids, it has less durability.


Air entraining cement is used to fill up the gaps in concrete which are produced by the excessive amount of water during the casting of concrete also used in cold weather when frost resistance in concrete is an important criterion.

4. Hydrophobic cement.

Hydrophobic cement is made by adding admixtures such as naphthalene soap,ac-idol, oxidized petroleum, etc in the Ordinary Portland cement, A water-repellent layer around the cement particles is formed, which would facilitate its storage for longer periods in extremely wet climatic conditions.


Hydrophobic cement is used in the construction of dams, spillways, under water constructions. it can also be used in cold and rainy weather conditions

5. White cement

White cement is obtained by using raw materials which are free from iron oxide in the manufacturing of cement. Lime and china clay are used in more amounts in its manufacturing. white cement has all other properties similar to an ordinary Portland cement.its expensive as compared to ordinary Portland cement.


White cement is used for architectural purposes such as pre-cast curtain wall and facing panels etc. it is also used in making wall putty,tile grout, tile adhesive etc. white cement is also used for external rendering as it provides a smooth and pleasing finish. it is also preferred for terrazzo flooring works.

6. Rapid hardening cement.

Rapid hardening cement attains high strength in early days as compared to ordinary Portland cement. it has other properties quite similar to that of ordinary Portland cement, but it is a bit finer than OPC. it has more lime and C3S than OPC which helps in gaining strength early.


Rapid hardening cement is used when there is need to remove form work at an early stage for saving the cost of construction. it is also used in pre-fabricated concrete construction

7. Portland pozzolana cement (ppc)

Portland pozzolana cement is a variation of ordinary Portland cement which includes a mixture of pozzolanic materials, ordinary Portland cement and gypsum.the difference is that pozzolanic materials uses are fly ash, rice husk ash, volcanic tuffs, etc. Fly ash is most commonly used pozzolanic materials. The heat of hydration rate is lower in this type of cement. there are many advantages of ppc over opc, which has made it prominent in the construction industry,


Portland pozzolanic cement is now used as a replacement of opc. Apart from common applications, it is used in mass concrete constructions like high-rise buildings, under water concrete structures such as bridges, piers, dams etc.

8. Quick setting cement.

Quick setting cement sets faster as compared to opc, but the rate of gain of strength remains the same. in these type of cement, the quantity of gypsum, which acts as a retarder is reduced. it has an initial setting time of 5 minutes and final setting time of 30 minutes.


This type of cement is used where a quick setting is needed in a very short period like underwater structures, cold and rainy weather conditions etc. Quick setting cement is also used in structural repairs where the setting is an important criteria.

9. Extra Rapid hardening cement.

Extra rapid hardening cement is obtained by addition of calcium chloride to rapid hardening cement. calcium chloride added helps in accelerating the hardening and setting processes. the compressive strength of extra rapid hardening cement is about 25% higher than that of Rapid hardening cement at one or two days.


Extra rapid hardening cement is used in cold weather concreting to set the cement fast. it is also used in situations when form-work is to be removed early.

10. Low heat cement.

Low heat cement is obtained by reducing the content of C3A and increasing the content of C2A. The name itself indicates this type of cement will release low heat of hydration. low heat cement has more initials setting time as compared to ordinary Portland cement.


It is used in massive concrete construction like large footings, large raft slabs, gravity dam’s, thick pavements etc. Low heat cement is also used in the construction of hydraulic structures and retaining walls.

11. Portland slag cement

It is special blended cement with low heat of hydration. The by-products from a blast furnace, i.e slag is used in the manufacturing of Portland slag cement. it is less expensive as compared to ordinary Portland cement. Portland slag cement has less heat of hydration as compared to Opc.


It is used in mass concrete structures like dams water treatment plants, marine and off-shore structures.

12. Coloured cement

Coloured cement is obtained by mixing ordinary Portland cement with 5-10% mineral pigments. The pigments impart colours to the cement.


This types of cement is widely used for decorative works in floor and ceiling. Coloured cement is commonly used in grouting of tiles. This cement is selected such that the colour of the grout and colour of tiles match perfectly for finishing the flooring.

13. Sulphate resisting cement

Sulphate resisting cement is beneficial in the area where the concrete is vulnerable to sulphates attack. This types of cement have less content of C3S and C4AF.


Sulphate resisting cement is used where concrete has exposure to sea coast,soil, saline groundwater.

14. Oil well cement

Oil well cement is manufactured by adding retarders to ordinary Portland cement. There is no chemical effect of oils on oil well cement. This cement can be used under high temperature and high- pressure conditions. it is costly when compared with ordinary Portland cement.


Oil well cement is used in the petroleum industry for cementing work during the drilling of gas and oil well. it is also used in filling up the gaps between rocks and steel casing of the oil wells.

15. Masonry cement

This type of cement is obtained by added plastering materials such as limestone, hydrated lime, etc in the clinker during manufacturing of ordinary Portland cement. It remains in the plastic state for a longer time so that the masonry units can be placed properly.


The masonry cement is often used in brick, concrete block and stone masonry construction. it can also be used to produce plaster.

16. Expansive cement

Expansive cement expands as it starts setting and does not shrink during and after hardening. The purpose of this type of cement is to reduce the size and amount of shrinkage cracks.


This type of cement is increasingly used for the repairs of concrete structures.expansive cement is used in grouting anchor bolts and pre-stressed concrete ducts. it is also used to avoid formation of shrinkage cracks in concrete.

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CIVIL engineer services; Normal and Additional Services- Nigeria

To engage the services of a civil engineer in your project, it is equally important to understand the scope of professional services rendered by the civil engineer, these services will be classified into two; Normal services and Additional Services just like Architect services. it is also good to know when he act as a prime consultant or a Consultant.

Can Civil engineer be a prime consultant ?

Yes, Civil engineer becomes a prime consultant when he is the leader of the Team of consultants on a project. He conceives and initiates the project, produces the guiding designs or sketches, co-ordinates and in some cases manages the project.

What type of project can Civil engineer be a prime consultant ?

A civil engineer will be a prime consultant in the following project; roads design, road construction, bridges, flyover, Calverts , tunnels and any other major civil works.

Normal services:

The normal services of a civil engineer on a project will be divided into 3 stages. Each stage when completed has a percentage of money to be paid to Civil engineer based on professional scale of fees.

Stage 1: Preliminary design

It include the following services;

(1) Seek the brief from, and discuss with the Client the role of the consultant Engineer and his relationship with the need for other consultants.

(2) Seek from the Client all the information to be provided by the client and Prepares a questionnaire for the client to seek further clarification for his requirements.

(3) Advise the Client on limitations caused by topography, road and public access to the site both during construction of the project, on completion and any identification previous uses that may affect the design options.

(4) Obtains such information as is reasonably available from documents on the existence and extent of public services such as water, gas, electricity, telecommunications, sewage, culverts, tunnels and any physical site restriction which affect the engineering options for the project and comment on the same to the Client.

(5) Make initial recommendation to the client on the technical viability of the project with suggestions for amending the brief.

(6) Advise the Client on the need for geo-technical investigation, topographical and other surveys of the site to obtain details of construction in existence on or adjacent to the site.

(7) Arrange on behalf of the Client when authorized by him for such investigations to be Undertaken by appropriate professional and certify the amount of any payment to be made by the client for the carrying out of such investigations.

(8) Develop the Client’s requirements into a definitive brief for the project in continuation with the Client and any other consultants and consider alternatives outline solutions to the project.

(9) Provide sufficient preliminary information in the form of Advise, sketches and reports or outlines specifications to enable any other consultants to prepare their outline proposals and inputs to the outline cost plan.

(10) Collate, co-ordinate and present the outline proposals and cost plan to the client.

(11) After receiving the Client’s approval of the outline proposals and the client’s consent to proceed to the Next stage: he will do the following

(a) Liaise as may be necessary with the Client or any consultant, Prepare and submit an outline programme for the whole of the design.

(b) Integrate the services of any other consultants in relation to the next stage ( scheme Design) and the results of their work with that of the consulting Engineer.

(c) Develop the design of the outline proposals for the project in collaboration with any other consultants.

(d) Prepare or seek from others such representative sketches.

(e) Drawings, specifications and or calculations as are necessary to enable the consulting Engineer or any other consultant to prepare the cost plan.

(f) Prepare or Seek from others such information as is necessary to enable the consulting Engineer or any other consultant to prepare the scheme Design; present the scheme Design and cost plan to the client, drawing attention any significant differences from the previously agreed requirements of the client.

Stage 2. Scheme development

His services include:

(1) Develop the design of the project in collaboration with other consultants and Prepare detailed calculations, detailed construction and working drawings, detailed bending schedule and detailed specifications to facilitate the preparation of Tender documents for the project.

(2) Co-ordinate the services of any other consultants to Develop the details of the project.

(3) Monitor the activities of any other consultant to measure actual progress against the programme and report to the client.

(4) Following submission of drawings and other information relevant to the project by any other consultants, co-ordinate dimensional and similar requirements including builder’s work, provision for building services and any special provisions for the fixing of non- structural cladding and other components.

(5) Check that the design information provided by the other consultants are integrated.

(6) Advise the Client as to the suitability of persons and firms to be invited to tender for any contract involving the construction, supply and or installation of all or part of the project or the works.

(7) Advise the Client on the need for any special conditions of contract relevant to the project and on the appropriate forms of contract and invitation to Tender for the project.

(8) Notify the Client of the completion of the developed Design of the project.

(9) Seek the Client’s consent to proceed to the Tender stage.

(10) Assemble the Tender documents and issue to Firms invited to Tender.

(11) With the assistance of any other consultants, Advise the Client on the relative merits of Tenders received for carrying out all or part of the project.

(12) Prepare such calculations and details as may be required for submission to appropriate statutory authority for the purpose of applying for necessary approvals for the construction of the project.

(13) Monitor the activities of any other consultants with regard to any submissions they are making in applying for statutory approvals in respect of the project and to measure actual progress against the programme and report to the client.

Stage 3.

Addvising the Client on the need for Special inspection or testing during manufacturer and installation of such electrical and mechanical materials, machinery and plants supplied for incorporation in the works and arranging and witnessing acceptance tests. Also the following;

(a) Advising the client or other consultants on the appointment of the site staff.

(b) Making such visit to the site at least once a month as the consulting Engineer shall consider necessary to satisfy himself as to the performance of any site staff and to satisfy himself that the works are executed generally according to contract and otherwise in accordance with good engineering practice.

(c) Giving all necessary instructions to the contractor, provided that the consulting Engineer shall not without the prior approval of the client give any instructions which in the opinion of the consulting Engineer are likely to increase the cost of the works.

(d) Advising the client or other consultants as to the need to vary any part of the project for a reason or reason relating to the works.

(e) Approving the contractor’s commissioning procedures and performance tests and inspecting the works on completion.

(f) Performing any services which the consulting Engineer May be required to carry out under documents which he had prepared relating to the works. The consulting Engineer May decline to perform any services specified in a contract, the terms of which have not initially been expressly approved by him in writing.

(g) Delivery to the client on the completion of the works such Records drawing; manufacturer’s manual, contractors operating instructions, where appropriate, certificate of works test that are as reasonably necessary to enable the Client to operate and maintain the works.

(h) Examining the contractor’s proposals, programme of work, method statement etc.

(I) Issuing certificate for payment to the contractor.

(j) Assisting in setting any difference which may arise between the client and the contractor provided that this service shall not extend to Advising the client following the taking of any step in or towards any arbitration or litigation in connection with the works.

Additional Services

It includes:

(1) Prepare any report or additional contract documents required for consideration of proposals for the carrying out of alternative works. Carry out works in connection with any application by the Client for any order, section, licence, permit or other consent, approval or authorisation necessary to enable the works to proceed.

(2) Carry out works arising from failure of the client toward a contract in due time.

(3) Check and or Advise upon any part of the project not designed by the consulting Engineer.

(4) Provide Services in connection with the funding, sale or letting of the project including all necessary liaison with legal and financial advisors and any checking consultants of surveyors appointed on behalf of funding organizations and or potential purchasers of leases.

(5) Make visits to site.

(6) Carry out work including additional site visits consequent upon any assignment of a contract by the contractor or Upon the failure of the contractor or any of his sub-contractors properly to perform any contractual obligation or upon delay by the client in fulfilling his obligations. Advise the Client with regard to any dispute or difference which involves matters excluded from stage 2 (j).

(7) Carry out work in conjunction with others employed to provide any of the services excluded from stage 1, no 11 ( a- f) above.

(8) Provide as- built drawings of the works. Which include the following;

(a) Specialist technical Advice on any aspect of the works.

(b) Legal, financial and other professional services.

(c) Services in connection with the valuation, purchase, sale or leasing of lands and the obtaining of way lease.

(d) The surveying of sites or existing works.

(e) Investigation of the nature and strength of existing works and the making of model or Special investigations.

(f) The carrying out of Special inspection or tests advised by the consulting Engineer under stage 3 no 1a.

Project Management

It includes:

(1) Identification of the Client’s objectives and priorities.

(2) Development and preparation of the brief.

(3) Prepare an option feasibility report

(4) Execute a risk analysis exercise

(5) Establish the budget and the total project programme

(6) Advise on the design team selection.

(7) Establish and manage integrated communication and information systems between the Client and the Design Team.

(8) Advise on the appropriate procurement strategy.

(9) Establish the pre-contract control systems and execute a value analysis exercise.

(10) Monitor planning permission and other statutory consents.

(11) Facilitate and receive Tenders evaluation report including the selection of contractors.

(12) Establish the post contract time, cost and quality control and management systems.

Monitor and receive from prime consultant regularly through to the project completion commissioning.

Read also Architect Services,

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Architect Services; normal and additional services – Nigeria.

When you intend to engage an Architect to help you realize that dream project,be informed that their is scope of professional services rendered by the Architect which will be classified into two; normal Services and Additional Services.

Before we go into the services of an Architect. It is good to know when the Architect is a prime consultant for a project or consultant and which project can Architect be a prime consultant just like civil engineer services.

Can Architect be a prime consultant ?

Yes, Architect can be a prime consultant when he is the leader of the team of consultants on a project. He conceives and initiates the project, produces the guiding designs or sketches, co-ordinates and in some cases manages the project.

Which project can Architect be a prime consultant ?

An Architect can be a prime consultant on all building projects including new construction, maintenance ( renovation, rehabilitation, restoration, refurbishing of existing buildings) and furnishing works among others.

Normal services

The normal services of an Architect can be classified into 3 stages. Each stage when completed there is a percentage of money to be paid to the Architect based on professional scale of fees but we are not discussing fees payment maybe next article.

Stage 1: preliminary Design

(1) The Architect obtains Client briefing and requirements including survey plans and other statutory documents, visiting and appraising and analysing the site, sourcing of statutory designing data and information. Analysing the Client’s requirements and sourcing other consultants input there in.

(2) Preparing illustrating and describing outline proposals in an appropriate scale. While on maintenance works, detailed schedule of dilapidation to include extent and level of damages, deterioration, desrepair and defects among others shall accompany the proposal.

(3) Advising, guiding the Client on the need to take any major decisions required and receiving appropriate approval.

(4) Preparing appropriate design schemes consisting of drawings and outline specifications sufficient to indicate spatial arrangements, material usage and design configuration with site arrangements and Architectural massing. While on maintenance works, appropriate re- detailing, repair/ replacement schedule and specifications shall accompany the proposal.

Stage 2: production, working drawings, specifications and details.

Preparation of comprehensive working drawings and contract documents including Design/ technical specifications. The detailed working/ construction drawings shall include:

(1) Detailed site plan showing the design orientation and configuration, statutory setbacks, External works; septic tanks, soak away pits and inspection chambers, gates, fence location, parking and any other Design information relevant to the scheme.

(2) Overall plans of the scheme for all floors including roof plans, detailed dimensions, annotations and blown up details of all parts in appropriate scale for other consultants use and construction works.

(3) Detailed sections, elevations, wall and floor finishes, construction details and levels.

(4) Working details, window and door schedules, ironmongery schedule fittings and fixtures.

(5) Detailed materials specification book and painting schedules for the scheme.

(6) Co-ordination and reconcilation of all the drawings and inputs of other consultants and specialists.

(7) Obtaining information and other design from manufacturer and suppliers for the purpose of detailing Design schemes and cost control.

(8) Providing appropriate information and drawings and specifications for preparation of Bills of quantities.

(9) Reconciling all structural drawings and their specifications with the architectural design to ensure that there are no conflicts or discrepancies.

(10) Reconciling all Mechanical, Electrical and other specialists drawings and their specifications with the architectural design to ensure that there are no conflicts or discrepancies.

(11) Reconciling all final bill of quantities with the detailed Architectural Design, working/construction drawings and specifications to ensure that there are no conflicts or discrepancies.

(12) Co-ordination of reconcilation of all final designs, specifications, Bills of quantities, other tender/ contract documents and inputs of all consultants to ensure that there are no conflict or discrepancies.

(13) Avail the Client with the appropriate form of contract and advising and guiding the client in the pre-qualification of all contractors for the works.

(14) Preparing the form of Tender and issuing invitation to tender.

(15) Issuance and collation of all tender documents to and from Tenderers, Preparing the appropriate contract agreement with all conditions applicable for the works.

Stage 3: Obtaining Tenders To completion.

(1) Obtaining, analysing as it relates to Architect’s works ( preference, quality of works executed, machinery equipment capability/ competence, category of statutory registration, etc) and full report on Tenders, Preparing and Advising on the contract and the appointment of the contractor.

(2) Arrange for the works contractor to take possession of the site.

(3) Examing, reviewing and approving the contractor work programme.

(4) Suppervision and co- ordination of all site works including per month formal site visit and technical meetings.

(5) Producing and circulating the minutes of such meetings to all parties.

(6) Issuing payment certificates and other administrative duties including submission of a progress report to the client quarterly or as agreed.

(7) The normal Services allow for one formal site visit per month at which meetings is held as earlier mentioned above.

(8) The consultant Architect shall make additional periodic visit to the sites as appropriate to supervise generally the progress and quality of the work.

(9) Upon the practical completion of the works, the consultant Architect shall visit the site with the Client or his duly appointed representative and all interested parties for the purpose of handing over the building to the client and agree on the expiry date of the defects liability period.

(10) Upon this agreed date the consultant Architect shall make a first inspection and upon the expiry of a mutually agreed period for the rectification of defects,he shall make final inspections of the works. Any further visits required shall be regarded as additional services.

(11) Issuing a certificate of the practical completion of the works and the final payment certificate.

Additional Services

Additional Services May be required according to the circumstances of the project to augment the normal services. These additional services will be charged differently from normal Services depending on the nature of work to do. The amount to be charged is based on Remuneration or as agreed with the employer before commencement of the work which will be spelt out in the first schedule. The services include;

1. Feasibility studies

Understanding a preliminary technical appraisal of a project sufficient to enable the employer to decide whether and in what form to proceed. Sourcing, Planning approval requirements and or making application for outline planning approval, such appraisal may include programme and a proposed contract procedure.

2. Sites and Buildings

Advising on the selection and suitability of sites, conducting negotiations, concerned with sites for new building or of existing buildings. These include;

(a) Undertaking visits, Preparing reports or giving general advice on the condition of the premises.

(b) Preparing schedules of dilapidation and agreeing them with other parties; taking particulars on site, Preparing specifications for repairs and supervising their execution.

(c) Undertaking investigations, the limits of which shall be clearly defined and agreed in writing such as are necessary to ascertain whether or not there are defects in the wall, roof, floors, and drains of a building which may materially affect its life and value.

(d) Preparation of measure drawings of existing building.

(e) Preparation layout of Parks and garden, and landscape design.

(f) Specialist advice on the selection of plants and materials, visits to nurseries etc.

3. Development plan

Preparing development plans, which will be carried out over a number of years for any large building or complex of Buildings. Fees for Preparing development plans shall in all cases be additional to percentage fee for the normal service.

4. Development studies

(a) Where the employer’s initial statement in stage 1 requires special services such as operational research including work study before consideration of the brief and development of a preliminary design such services shall constitute an additional service.

(b) Where the development of a final design in Stage 2 or Design details involves special constructional research including Design, construction or testing of prototype buildings and models, such research shall constitute an additional service.

5. Special drawings and models

Preparing any drawings, working and for finished models, three dimensional drawings or technical information specially for the use of the employer or for planning, by-laws or building regulation approvals, for negotiations with ground landlords, adjoining owners, public authorities, licensing authorities, mortgagors and others.

6. Special meetings

Special meetings arising from application for planning, building by-laws, Building Act or Building Regulation approvals.

7. Redesigns and additional Design work

Extra work at any time due to changes in an approved Design resulting from changes in the employer’s instructions or any other cause beyond the control of the consultant. The employer is particularly reminded of the considerable extra charges which may be incurred as follows:

(a) Amending design details already prepared or for Preparing new drawings because of alterations in the brief after employer’s approval of a final design.

(b) Amending Production information because of changes in location, sizes or shape after the approved of design details.

(c) Amending Production information already prepared or for Preparing additional information because of changes required after commencement of Buildings operations.

(d) Additional work required to be carried out as a result of damages or destruction of any part of the works, materials or equipment before completion.

8. Delays in the works

Additional work arising from delay in building operations whether arising from bankruptcy or liquidation of the contractor or From any other cause beyond the control of the consultant.

9. Interior design

Where Special services in respect of interior design work are provided including advice on the selection of furniture, fittings,soft furnishings, and inspection of making up such furnishings in a new building or existing building the percentage fee for each stage of service shall be negotiated between the Architect and the Client.

10. Furniture and fittings

These include the following:

(a) For Advising on the selection and suitability of loose furniture, fittings and soft furnishing where a service as described in normal service is not provided, the fees shall be negotiated.

(b) For the design of Special items of furniture and fittings for limited Production only including Designs for garden furniture, the fee shall be negotiated.

(c) Payment for the design of mass produced items of furniture may be by royalty or by time charges and scale of copyright, fees for the design of prototypes may be an advance on royalties.

(d) For Advising on the commission of Special works of art, the selection of paintings and sculptures etc for liaising with artists and for advising on installation of the artwork, fees shall be negotiated.

(e) For Preparing artwork, murals and other studies of final work where no separate artist is employed,fees shall be negotiated.

11. Litigation and Arbitration

For qualifying to give evidence, getting proof, attending conferences with solicitors and counsel attendance in court or at Arbitration or Planning inquiries or before other tribunals for services in connection with litigation or for arbitration,a negotiated fee shall be agreed.

12. Suppervission

These include the following:

(a) For Providing Resident Suppervission on a site a monthly charge shall be made computed in accordance with the approved man-month rates.

(b) For Providing suppervission by site visits beyond the original contract period ( during and extended construction period) the charge shall be based on the man-month rate charges.

(c) For each additional site visit required by the employer during the contract period over and above the normal service the charge shall be the same as the man-month charge for each visit during the normal visit.

13. Project Management

It include the following:

(a) Identification of the client’s objectives and priorities

(b) Development and preparation of the brief

(c) Prepare on option/ feasibility report

(d) Execute a risk analysis exercise

(e) Establish the budget and the total project programme

(f) Advice on the design team selection.

(g) Establish and manage integrated communication and information systems between the Client and the Design Team.

(h) Advise on the appropriate procurement strategy.

(I) Establish the pre- contract control systems and execute a value analysis exercise.

(j) Monitor planning permission and other statutory consents.

(k) Facilitate and receive Tenders evaluation/ report including the selection of contractors

(l) Establish the post contract time, cost and quality control and management systems.

(m) Monitor and receive from prime consultant, report regularly through to the project completion commissioning and occupation.

Read also civil engineer Services.

Architect duties and responsibilities.

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Owning any pet is lovely but owning a cat in particular is awesome, cat is the King of pets in the home. It has many health benefits for human and doesn’t require much effort to keep in the home compared to other pets. Domestic cats are valued by humans for companionship and their ability to hunt rodents.

What is a cat ?

Cat ( Felis catus) is a domestic species of small carnivorous mamal. It is the only domesticated species in the family of felidae and is often referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from the wild members of the family. A cat can either be a house cat, a farm cat or a feral cat.

4 health benefits of cat

1.CAT PURR HELP TO HEAL BONES , TENDONS and MUSCLES; A cat purring is one of the most comforting sounds, while it means that your cat is Happy and comfortable, the sound has been associated with a therapeutic healing ability on human bones and muscles. A cat purr create vibrations at a frequency of 20 – 40 HZ and studies have shown that frequencies in the range of 18 – 35 HZ have a positive effect on joint mobility injury.


Often we experience bad emotions like losing a loved one which is incredibly painful, but one of the best ways of coping is to own a cat as pet. Cats have been shown to help people get over their loss more quickly, and show less physical symptoms of pain, like crying. Despite the fact that cat is animal but they serve as a social support during difficult times.


Having a cat around you can actually trigger the release of calming chemicals in your body which lower your stress and anxiety levels. Cat are known for being super- low maintenance and a simple petting session is usually enough to make both you and your cat happy.


Owning a cat can actually lower ones risk of various heart diseases including stroke by around 30%. Studies shows that owning a cat can lower your stress levels which in turn will have effect on your risk of cardiovascular disease.

Now you know let’s go to the shelter of pets.

Top 36 cat shelter Design ideas;

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What is passage or corridor?

A passage or corridor is a form of hallway or gallery which is typically narrow in comparison to it’s lengths and acts as a link connecting different parts of a building. It often has entry points to rooms along it.

Use of passage

Passage or corridor helps to increase the efficiency with which people could move through inside home, buildings, while also turning rooms into a series of dead ends by separating circulation from destination.

Passage design requirements

The design of passage or corridor is largely depends on the functions of the building. For example; Hospital passage or corridor will need to be wide enough to allow flow of human and equipment traffic including beds, and wheelchairs. Hotel passage or corridor need to be robust enough for suitcase wheels, trolley and so on. While home passage or corridor is not as wide as public or institutional buildings. In Design of passage or corridor it is advice able to inculcate proper lighting, be it natural or artificial lights to avoid dark corners and allow easy circulation.

Since passages or corridor is integral part of our home ,house, appartment, hotel ,hostel, shelter,offices and building structures. We should treat it with utmost importance by giving it thorough finishes starting from Design, decoration and organization for better comfort and aesthetics.

Top 31 passage design ideas

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Building project

What is Design brief ?

A design brief is a document for a design project developed by designer or design team in consultation with the Client. The design brief defines the client’s goal and objectives.

It is important to draw up a full and clear programme before starting a serious study of proposed building, this will avoid troublesome misunderstandings, saves time and more econmical for both the Architect (Designer) and client. All necessary information required by the Architect (designer) should be extracted from the client by discussion and question.

5 important information in design brief:

The site

Information pertaining to the site in a design brief shall include;

  • The legal responsibilities concerning land,whether it is freehold or a leased land or there is need to call the services of a solicitor at this point.
  • Whether there are encumbrances or existence of easement or whether any conditions attached to the freehold or leasehold. it is advisable to examine the deeds.
  • The availability of public services or whether it will be provided privately.
  • Whether the site is complete or will be extended in future development.
  • The availability of acess, circulation, interaction,parking and other facilities.

The space requirments

It describes the accommodation; and the information required which include:

  • The definition of the functions of various buildings and inter-relationship.
  • The areas and relation of principal rooms or units that are supposed to serve the same general activity.
  • Height of rooms.
  • Natural or artificial light and ventilation.
  • Internal and external finishes.
  • The list of users and their activities.
  • Whether any section of the building are to be used seperately or at different times.
  • Whether the building is to be erected in one operation or by stages and possible future expansion.
  • The date of completion.

Individual space programme

It defines the exact amount of:

  • The room space in square metres ( m2)
  • Furniture and fixtures requirement for the activities.

Mechanical and electrical engineering services

It defines the:

  • Type of heating and fuel to be used, exposed or concealed.
  • Lifts
  • Refrigeration
  • Air-conditioning
  • Quantity of hot and cold water
  • Type of lighting installation (surface or conduit wiring)
  • Electrical power requirements.
  • Refuse disposal
  • Any special provisions.


Another important information required in design brief is the financial capability of the shall be carefully considerd because he need to meet up with financial obiligation to contractor’s and other consultants. Information on client’s finance include:

  • The amount of money available for the project
  • Whether the building is speculative or is for specific use
  • Whether the finance can give room to employ quantity surveyor, consultants and clerk of work.
  • The payment of professional fees.

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The term Drum or Barrel can be refer to roughly cylindrical containers made of modern materials like plastic,paperboard, steel and aluminium.

Drum or barrel have a variety of uses, including storage of liquide such as water, oil, alcohol, arrack and sake, they are also employed to hold maturing beverage such as wine, cognac, armagnac,sherry,port, whisky and beer.It can also be used as a standard size of measure refering to a set capacity or weight of a given commodity.

For the sake of this Re-cycling design ideas we are limiting the use of Drum or barrel to the ones made of steel or Aluminium materials.

Think of local content and how to put them into- use. Re-cycling of Drum or barrel as a local content and putting them into-use in our home, shelter and outdoors was a great ideas to curb wastage of our scarce resources.

Top 29 drum (barrel) re-cycle design ideas.

Think local cotent, think innovative

Read up other great article from our Blog.

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The process of building design and development involves the identification of the expected roles of various interest groups and the information required at each stage.

These stages which commences from inception to production information can be divide into four; (1) inception (2) scheme development (3) design development and (4) production drawing stage.

4 stages of building design

Let’s us discuss each stage and what is required.

(1) Inception or commencement stage; the inception stage involves the following sequence.

  • The client brief the Architect on all the relevant informations in order to give the Architect a clear picture of his requirements. These requirements may include Space available, Location of the project, the use of the proposed building, the finance available that can be spend on the project and time limit for the project.
  • The Architect formulates the client’s requirements into an understanding form that will show the client a visual impression of shape, type of materials, size etc
  • The Architect visit the site to acquaint himself with the site conditions and make the necessary investigation.
  • The Architect seeks planning and building approval from the planning and local authority.
  • The Architect brings together a team to give guidance on specific areas such as a structural engineer, service engineer, and quantity surveyor.

(2) Scheme development stage; this stage involves:

  • The analysing and synthesising of the data already collected
  • The preparing of many schematic sketches and rejecting same until arriving at the basic concept of the project showing the general organization and the basic structural systems.
  • The Architects preliminary sketches are sent to the structural engineer and Services Engineers for them to prepare their preliminary sketch designs.
  • The quantity surveyor prepares a rough cost estimate of the building.
  • The preliminary sketch designs, the cost estimate and the time scale will enable the Client to approve or otherwise before the final drawings are prepared. The cost of the building would have been broken down into elements at this stage with approximate cost values. This will enable the Client to know where cost is to be cut and from which section e.g structural components, internal finishing, electrical or mechanical component.
  • When a general agreement has been reached between the Architect and his team; and the Client, the approved sketches and cost estimate can then serve the Architect as a guideline throughout the process of designing and the production of construction or working drawings.

(3) Design development stage; This stage involves the preliminary drawings produced in the outline form showing the size, materials of the project, structural, mechanical and electrical systems.


(4) Production or contract drawing stage; After the design development stage, the Architect and his team shall proceed to produce the contract or production drawings, this stage involves:

  • Production of contract or working drawings
  • The preparation of specifications by the Architects. This defines the whole building and details that cannot be shown in the drawings.
  • The bill of quantities is prepared by the quantity surveyor.This is the amount the contract is to be awarded
  • The plans and bill of quantities are checked for accuracy and correctness
  • Building regulation Checks and approval
  • When the contract documents such as drawings, specification and bill of quantities and the condition of contract stating the duration whether or not sub-contractors and suppliers could be appointed are put together,it is then contract can be tendered.

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