What actually comes to your mind when choosing cement for your project ?. just like medicine, if you are diagnose with malaria or high fever their is a particular drug recommendation from your physician to treat it ,likewise your project,The type of project determine the type of cement to be used. example: cement used in water-lock areas, dams project is quite different from cement use in chemical vulnerable Areas.
Cement is a substance use for binding and hardening other materials in construction and building industry. water and cement set and harden through a chemical reaction known as ”Hydration”. The process of hardening is described as ”Curing” which requires particular conditions of Temperature and humidity.
which cement is the best for drilling of gas and oil well project?
Answer; The best cement for concreting in drilling or oil well project is ”oil well cement”, because there is no chemical effect on oil well cement.
which cement is best for concrete in sulphate vulnerable areas ?
Answer; the best cement for sulphate vulnerable Areas is ‘‘Sulphate Resisting Cement”, because it has less content of C3S and C4 AF which makes it more suitable for the project.
Which cement is the best for under water structures or dams ?
Answer; the best cement for under water structures or project is ”Quick setting cement” just like the name the setting start between 5 – 30 mins.
Top 16 cement types and the best projects for it:
1. Ordinary Portland cement (opc)
Ordinary Portland cement is the most common type of cement which is manufactured and widely used worldwide.
It is used for all ordinary purposes such as making concrete, mortar, plaster etc. OPC is available in three grades namely grade 33, 43 and 53. Ordinary Portland cement is mixed with aggregates and water to make concrete,which is an essential modern building materials. it is also used to make mortar for joining masonry and plaster to give perfect finished walls. OPC has many applications such as in the manufacturing of grout, wall putty, solid concrete blocks, AAC blocks and other types of cement.
2. High alumina cement.
High alumina cement is obtained by melting bauxite during the manufacturing process of ordinary Portland cement. it has a high compressive strength and is more workable as compared to OPC. it attains high strength in less time and has initial and final setting time of 3.5 hours and 5 hours respectively.
It is used where concrete structure are subjected to high temperatures like workshop,refractory, foundries etc. it can also be used where concrete is subjected to frost action and acidic action.
3. Air Entraining cement.
Various air entraining agents such as resins, glues, sodium sulphate, etc are added along with the clinker to produce air entraining cement. For the same water-cement ratio, air entraining cement has more work-ability as compared to Ordinary Portland cement. This type of cement has more resistance to frost, but as it contains voids, it has less durability.
Air entraining cement is used to fill up the gaps in concrete which are produced by the excessive amount of water during the casting of concrete members.it also used in cold weather when frost resistance in concrete is an important criterion.
4. Hydrophobic cement.
Hydrophobic cement is made by adding admixtures such as naphthalene soap,ac-idol, oxidized petroleum, etc in the Ordinary Portland cement, A water-repellent layer around the cement particles is formed, which would facilitate its storage for longer periods in extremely wet climatic conditions.
Hydrophobic cement is used in the construction of dams, spillways, under water constructions. it can also be used in cold and rainy weather conditions
5. White cement
White cement is obtained by using raw materials which are free from iron oxide in the manufacturing of cement. Lime and china clay are used in more amounts in its manufacturing. white cement has all other properties similar to an ordinary Portland cement.its expensive as compared to ordinary Portland cement.
White cement is used for architectural purposes such as pre-cast curtain wall and facing panels etc. it is also used in making wall putty,tile grout, tile adhesive etc. white cement is also used for external rendering as it provides a smooth and pleasing finish. it is also preferred for terrazzo flooring works.
6. Rapid hardening cement.
Rapid hardening cement attains high strength in early days as compared to ordinary Portland cement. it has other properties quite similar to that of ordinary Portland cement, but it is a bit finer than OPC. it has more lime and C3S than OPC which helps in gaining strength early.
Rapid hardening cement is used when there is need to remove form work at an early stage for saving the cost of construction. it is also used in pre-fabricated concrete construction
7. Portland pozzolana cement (ppc)
Portland pozzolana cement is a variation of ordinary Portland cement which includes a mixture of pozzolanic materials, ordinary Portland cement and gypsum.the difference is that pozzolanic materials uses are fly ash, rice husk ash, volcanic tuffs, etc. Fly ash is most commonly used pozzolanic materials. The heat of hydration rate is lower in this type of cement. there are many advantages of ppc over opc, which has made it prominent in the construction industry,
Portland pozzolanic cement is now used as a replacement of opc. Apart from common applications, it is used in mass concrete constructions like high-rise buildings, under water concrete structures such as bridges, piers, dams etc.
8. Quick setting cement.
Quick setting cement sets faster as compared to opc, but the rate of gain of strength remains the same. in these type of cement, the quantity of gypsum, which acts as a retarder is reduced. it has an initial setting time of 5 minutes and final setting time of 30 minutes.
This type of cement is used where a quick setting is needed in a very short period like underwater structures, cold and rainy weather conditions etc. Quick setting cement is also used in structural repairs where the setting is an important criteria.
9. Extra Rapid hardening cement.
Extra rapid hardening cement is obtained by addition of calcium chloride to rapid hardening cement. calcium chloride added helps in accelerating the hardening and setting processes. the compressive strength of extra rapid hardening cement is about 25% higher than that of Rapid hardening cement at one or two days.
Extra rapid hardening cement is used in cold weather concreting to set the cement fast. it is also used in situations when form-work is to be removed early.
10. Low heat cement.
Low heat cement is obtained by reducing the content of C3A and increasing the content of C2A. The name itself indicates this type of cement will release low heat of hydration. low heat cement has more initials setting time as compared to ordinary Portland cement.
It is used in massive concrete construction like large footings, large raft slabs, gravity dam’s, thick pavements etc. Low heat cement is also used in the construction of hydraulic structures and retaining walls.
11. Portland slag cement
It is special blended cement with low heat of hydration. The by-products from a blast furnace, i.e slag is used in the manufacturing of Portland slag cement. it is less expensive as compared to ordinary Portland cement. Portland slag cement has less heat of hydration as compared to Opc.
It is used in mass concrete structures like dams water treatment plants, marine and off-shore structures.
12. Coloured cement
Coloured cement is obtained by mixing ordinary Portland cement with 5-10% mineral pigments. The pigments impart colours to the cement.
This types of cement is widely used for decorative works in floor and ceiling. Coloured cement is commonly used in grouting of tiles. This cement is selected such that the colour of the grout and colour of tiles match perfectly for finishing the flooring.
13. Sulphate resisting cement
Sulphate resisting cement is beneficial in the area where the concrete is vulnerable to sulphates attack. This types of cement have less content of C3S and C4AF.
Sulphate resisting cement is used where concrete has exposure to sea coast,soil, saline groundwater.
14. Oil well cement
Oil well cement is manufactured by adding retarders to ordinary Portland cement. There is no chemical effect of oils on oil well cement. This cement can be used under high temperature and high- pressure conditions. it is costly when compared with ordinary Portland cement.
Oil well cement is used in the petroleum industry for cementing work during the drilling of gas and oil well. it is also used in filling up the gaps between rocks and steel casing of the oil wells.
15. Masonry cement
This type of cement is obtained by added plastering materials such as limestone, hydrated lime, etc in the clinker during manufacturing of ordinary Portland cement. It remains in the plastic state for a longer time so that the masonry units can be placed properly.
The masonry cement is often used in brick, concrete block and stone masonry construction. it can also be used to produce plaster.
16. Expansive cement
Expansive cement expands as it starts setting and does not shrink during and after hardening. The purpose of this type of cement is to reduce the size and amount of shrinkage cracks.
This type of cement is increasingly used for the repairs of concrete structures.expansive cement is used in grouting anchor bolts and pre-stressed concrete ducts. it is also used to avoid formation of shrinkage cracks in concrete.
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